What you will study
In this online module, you’ll study nine core topics and one chosen topic.
Topic 1: Human variation and diversity – The sequencing of the human genome has revolutionised the way scientists and health professionals think about human health and biology. In this topic you’ll explore the way our genes direct aspects of our behaviour and how our genome interacts with the environment. You’ll also discover the role of genes in the synthesis of proteins.
Topic 2: Cells and cancers – The skin is the largest organ in the human body and is continually being renewed. You’ll explore how the cells of the skin work together to repair and maintain its integrity. You’ll discover that accumulative mutations in the DNA of skin cells, largely because of exposure to the sun, can lead to skin cancers.
Topic 3: Nutrition and digestion – Worldwide, a third of adults are overweight or obese and this is fuelling a global increase in heart disease and diabetes. You’ll explore the importance of a healthy diet and learn how the body extracts nutrients from the food we eat.
Topic 4: The nervous system – This topic opens with the case of the man with the 7-second memory, illustrating the fragility of the human brain. The average adult human has over 85 billion brain cells, each capable of generating electrical signals. You’ll learn how brain cells achieve this electrifying feat and how they use chemicals to pass information from one brain cell to another. As well as exploring the different parts of the brain and the peripheral nervous system you’ll also learn about the senses and how the brain can be fooled!
Topic 5: Hormones and homeostasis – Hormones play a critical role in controlling physiological processes and maintaining the body’s internal environment. You’ll explore what happens when these homeostatic mechanisms fail, causing conditions such as diabetes and hypothyroidism. You’ll also discover how hormones are abused to improve performance in sport or to accelerate slimming.
Topic 6: The immune system – Our bodies are under constant attack from a host of pathogens. In this topic you’ll discover how the cells and components of the immune system defend the body without destroying it. You’ll learn how vaccinations prepare the immune system to fight disease and why there’s not yet a vaccination for the common cold.
Topic 7: Respiration – ‘Don’t hold your breath’ is an expression you’ve probably heard many times, but may not have thought too much about. In this topic, you’ll study why respiration is so important for life, including how air enters and leaves the lungs, the many dynamic factors that control breathing, and some diseases that affect respiration
Topic 8: The cardiovascular system – The heart of a 72-year-old will have beaten roughly 2.5 billion times, demonstrating the robust and resilient nature of the human heart. In this topic, you’ll learn how the heart and blood vessels work together to ensure that there is a continuous supply of blood to the body and why the control of blood pressure is important for human health.
Topic 9: The kidneys and homeostasis – The first organ offered for sale on the internet was a kidney! This is because without functioning kidneys the chances of long-term survival are limited. You’ll learn that kidneys clean the blood by removing excess water, minerals and wastes, as well as regulating blood pressure and secreting hormones.
Chosen topic: The musculoskeletal system – You’ll discover how bones, joints, muscles and nerves work together to allow movement of the body. You’ll also learn about the various roles that calcium plays in this system.
Chosen topic: Stress – Stress is a major cause of human disease and mental health problems, yet stress can also be beneficial. You’ll explore this conundrum.
Chosen topic: Fertility and reproduction – You’ll explore the topic of infertility in both men and women. You’ll learn about the hormonal and cellular events that prepare a woman’s body for reproduction and pregnancy. The topic concludes with the birth of a human child.
You will learn
As well as studying key physiological and anatomical principles of human biology, you’ll also develop your skills for further study in health and biological sciences, including evaluating evidence; handling numbers; presenting data; writing skills; and using information technology.